Page Referencing in Assignments

 The Standard Requirements

The standard model for page referencing on the CSMP® Diploma programme is illustrated in the example below (adapted from a student paper):

A key intention with Postal IEDs is to gain access to a facility to specifically target a certain person/division. (CPNI, Protecting Against Terrorism, p15). Not only can they be sent through the post but they may also be delivered by couriers. Postal IEDs are a problem because regular packages that are sent via a postal service are usually not screened.  A package may be screened if it is destined for air freight (U10, p77).   It is important, therefore, that your facility has procedures in place to screen deliveries if the risk assessment deems it a threat (FEMA 429, p5).

When referencing, it is useful to use highlighter over the references (yellow or turquoise preferred).

Unnecessary Style

It isn't necessary to list a bibliography such as:

  1. FEMA 459: Incremental Protection for Existing Commercial Buildings from Terrorism Attack
  2. CPNI, Protecting Against Terrorism, 3rd Edition, p15
  3. Unit 10 Textbook

Additionally, it isn’t required, nor is it necessary, to use Harvard Style referencing. (see

Nor is it necessary to use footnotes e.g.,

In periods of elevated alert, check (…..redacted…..) 1.  Introduce (…..redacted…..) vehicles and react accordingly 2.


  1. Australia National Guidelines for Protecting Critical Infrastructure against Terrorism, p15
  2. CPNI Hostile Vehicle Mitigation, p259

The Inherent Risk of Referencing a Webpage

The URLs of webpages are subject to frequent change as content becomes obsolete, superseded, deleted or moved.  Therefore, it is recommended that you don’t include material from web pages in your assignments.  If you do, and the URL subsequently changes, the Awarding Organisation’s External Verifier may not be able to validate your assignment when it is selected for external verification at course-end.

Plagiarism and Page Referencing Shortcomings

Failure to attribute (page reference) correctly to source(s) is plagiarism.  Plagiarism can be intentional or unintentional.  Lack of intention doesn’t absolve the learner from guilt.

Plagiarism can occur inadvertently through lack of attention to detail, lack of organisation, rushing work, lack of proof-reading etc.  If a learner fails to cite relevant sources and presents words of another writer (whether paraphrased or otherwise) without correct attribution, the act of plagiarism is deemed to have occurred, whether intentional or not. 

Learners must get into the habit of careful note-taking and include sources when researching task responses.  

There is seldom a need to use internet material unless specifically indicated in the task, and any such content must be referenced to the exact and full URL so that it can be verified by the assessor.  AI-generated content doesn’t supply an exact URL so it is ineligible for inclusion in assignments.